Dictionary

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2 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Y Z

20 mph limit

A speed limit, indicated by signs and repeaters.

There is no traffic calming requirement with 20 mph limits. See the example below, on Tottenham Court Road in Camden. 

20 mph zone

See also: 

A 20 mph zone includes design features aimed at keeping vehicle speeds below 20 mph, such as humps, speed tables, rough surfaces, tight geometry, road narrowings, and so on.

Access barrier

A type of barrier designed to prevent (or discourage) illegitimate use of walking and cycling paths - in particular, entry using mopeds and motorcycles.

Access only

An 'access-only' road or street is that has a ban on motor traffic using it, except for access. Typically this signed with Diagram 620 'Except for Access' in conjunction with Diagram 619, 'motor vehicles prohibited'.

Access road

An access road is a road or street that should only be used by motor traffic that is accessing properties, businesses or dwellings on it.

Accessibility

The lack of separation from motor traffic limits the appeal of cycling to those who are sufficiently fast and brave.

Accident

An accident is an unforeseen mishap, but the word is often used to describe a road traffic collision.

Active travel

A mode of transport which involves physical effort.

Cycling and walking are often what's meant when 'active travel' is used, as the traveller must use their own energy and move their body to progress.

Advanced Stop Line

Sometimes called a bike box or a cycle reservoir, Advanced Stop Lines (ASLs) are stop lines for cyclists at traffic signals, which are marked beyond the stop line for general traffic.

Adverse camber

A road design feature that involves the road surface sloping away from the inside of a bend, being higher on the inside of the bend than on the outside (the opposite of a banked corner).

Advisory cycle lane

A cycle lane bounded by a broken white line, which enables motor traffic to enter the cycle lane when legal to do so.Advisory Cycle Lane, City of London

Aero bars

A piece of cycle-sport equipment which has been re-purposed by Dutch teenagers to allow texting and smartphone use while riding.

Angled rubbish bins

Popular beside cycle facilities in the Netherlands and Denmark, allowing people cycling to throw rubbish away without stopping.

APPCG

The All Party Parliamentary Cycling Group. The APPCG is a cross-party group consisting of MPs and Peers from the main political parties.

Armadillos

See also: 

Small dividers bolted onto road surface to give degree of protection to cycle lanes from the roadway. Also referred to, confusingly, as ‘zebras’. Approved for use in the UK by the DfT in 2013.

Aspect

'Aspect' refers to the lights in traffic signals. 

For instance, conventional traffic signals (below) have three aspects; a red aspect, an amber aspect, and a green aspect. 

Attractiveness

One of the five main demands used to measure the quality of cycling infrastructure (the others are cohesionsafety

Authority Creep

'Authority creep' is the assumption that because an individual is an expert in one particular area, they are able to speak with authority on another field, often only tenuously related to the individual's area of expertise.

autoluwte

'Autoluwte' is a Dutch noun used to describe areas that have very low motor traffic levels. (The Dutch adjective 'autoluw' means 'low traffic'). 

Average Annual Daily Flow

A measure of the total annual volume of motor traffic on a road or street over the course of a year, divided by 365. It is simple indication of how busy that road or street is.

Bakfiets

See also: 

Dutch makers of a range of cargo bikes.

The term is commonly used in the UK to refer to any bike with a front cargo box, especially in a bicycle rather than tricycle format. Literally - 'container bike'.

Barriers to cycling

A term used to describe the obstacles to the uptake of cycling as a mode of transport. Essentially, the reason why people choose not to cycle for trips that could easily be cycled.

Belisha beacon

Named for Leslie Hoare Belisha, the Minister for Transport from 1934-37, this is the black and white pole, with yellow flashing bulb, that stands each side of a zebra crossing.

Bicyclists

A term frequently seen on US websites.

Bikeability

See also: 

The national programme of cycle training in England, Wales and Scotland.

Bikeability is based on standards approved by the Department for Transport - however, it is entirely voluntary, and not part of the curriculum.

Bus boarder

A platform onto which bus passengers alight. Can be used in isolation, as a build-out from a footway, or as part of a floating bus stop arrangement.

Bus lane

A motor traffic lane that is specifically reserved for the use of buses, and cycles and taxis, where permitted by signs. 

Campaign for Better Transport

The Campaign for Better Transport. Previously “Transport 2000” until time overtook them!

Capacity

In highway engineering, capacity refers to the ability of a road or street to carry motor vehicles (or, more importantly, people).

Capital

See also: 

Capital (spending) refers to an amount spent on improving, or building, an asset. With regards to cycling, this might typically involve investment in the construction of new cycleways, improved junctions, or links between urban areas.

Cargo Bike

A bicycle, or tricycle, designed for carrying heavy or bulky cargo loads, sometimes children.

Carriageway

Generally the bit motor vehicles drive on (called the road by some). Pedestrians and cycle users have every right to use the carriageway unless prohibited by a Traffic Regulation Order (sometimes used on bridges and tunnels) or if it is a motorway.

Carriageway narrowing

A form of design used to encourage slower traffic and to provide better (usually wider) pavement facilities for pedestrians, and indeed cycling infrastructure.

Chaincase

A chaincase is a device that encloses the chain on a bicycle. It's a practical feature that is ubiquitous on bicycles ridden for transport in the Netherlands and Denmark. 

Charted Institution of Highways and Transportation

The Chartered Institution of Highways and Transportation is a member organisation for professionals working in the transport industry. It aims

Christiania bike

A manufacturer of cargo bikes in Denmark - most often seen as tricycles, and popular with businesses. 

Coaster brake

A coaster brake is a back pedal brake, typically found on bicycles ridden for transport in the Netherlands and Denmark. 

Cohesion

Also called 'Coherence.' One of the five main demands used to measure the quality of cycling infrastructure (the others are safety

Combined Traffic

A term used to refer to cycles and motor traffic being 'combined' on the carriageway, i.e. without any separate cycle provision. 'Combined traffic' should only occur in low speed, low traffic environments.

Comfort

One of the five main demands used to measure the quality of cycling infrastructure (the others are safetydir

Continuous footway

A term used to describe an uninterrupted footway that extends across a side road.

Copenhagen-style bus stop bypass

This layout is obviously found (a lot) in the Danish city of Copenhagen which is rather more cycle-friendly than London. The arrangement has a footway, then a cycle track and buses stopping next to the cycle track.

Countdown

Confusingly, this can mean two things. First, it can refer to the bus arrival times display on bus shelters. 

Critical Mass

An informal, leaderless bike ride that meets on the last Friday of every month, in cities around the world. There is no route planned; the ride simply follows those who happen to be at the head of the group.

Culture

In cycle campaigning, 'culture' is used as a way of explaining why cycling levels are so much higher in countries like the Netherlands and Denmark, compared to Britain.

Cycle Design Vehicle

A term used to refer to a 'composite' of the many different types of cycle, used to provide design criteria that will accommodate all those types of cycle.

Cycle lane

A cycle lane is a painted treatment for cycling on the road surface, and is defined as part of the carriageway.

cycle path

A route specifically for bicycle traffic that does not run parallel to an existing highway - it may, for instance, connect a new development to a town by the most direct route, while the road network is more circuitous.

Cycle Route

Any infrastructure that can legally be used by cyclists, including cycle tracks, stepped cycle tracks, cycle lanes, carriageways and cycle paths.

Cycle street

A cycle street is one designed to handle large volumes of cycling, but very low volumes of motor traffic.

Cycle Superhighway

A marketing term commonly used by British local authorities to promote new cycle infrastructure, and not necessarily of good quality.

Cycle time

'Cycle time' is the length of a cycle, in traffic signal control.

Cycle track

A route specifically for bicycle traffic that runs alongside a road or street, separate from it.

Cycle Tracks Act 1984

Legislation aimed at converting public footpaths (which are paths away from roads, not footways, which run along roads) int

Cycle training

'Cycle training' refers to any programme of instruction in cycling proficiency, be it simply learning to ride and handle a cycle, learning road rules and behaviour, or attempting to deal with more complex road environments.

Cycleway

A simple, catch-all term to describe a route for cycling, analogous to footway for pedestrians and roadway for motor vehicles.

Cycling Level of Service

Cycling Level of Service (or CLoS for short) is an audit tool developed by Transport for London. It is designed to assess the quality of cycling provision in existing (and proposed) schemes, with a final score out of 100. 

Cycling strategy

(Also Cycling Plan and other similar names)

A document usually prepared by a local authority setting out a strategic plan for provision of cycle infrastructure and related policies.

Cyclists Dismount

An information sign (white lettering on blue rectangle), rather than a 'no cycling' sign, meaning it does not require you to dismount unless it is already illegal to cycle (for instance on entering a pedestrian area or to use a pelican or zebra

Dangerisation

In cycle campaigning circles, 'dangerisation' is the claim that discussing safety, danger and potential risks suppresses cycling levels, and even causes people to give up cycling altogether.

Dangerous, cycling is ...

See the common canards section for the Embassy's view

Dedicated cycle paths can't be door to door...

A 'canard' that claims high-quality cycling infrastructure requires cycle paths being built from door-to-door, on every road and street.

Definitive map

A 'definitive map' is a document that county councils or unitary authorities in England and Wales (excluding inner London boroughs) have to draw up and maintain, to show all the rights of way in their ar

Design Speed

'Design Speed' refers to the assumed speed of users of a particular route, and therefore determines the way that route should be designed, to accommodate that speed. 

Desire line

A desire line represents the shortest and most obvious path between A and B.

Detector

A piece of equipment that serves to provide information to traffic signal control systems about vehicles, people, or cycles approaching or waiting at junctions, and adjusts signal time accordingly.

Detector Loop

A detector loop, or induction loop, is an electro-magnetic loop built in a road surface that provides traffic data, or alerts a traffic signal system to the presence of a vehicle or bicycle.

DfT

The Department for Transport - the body responsible for transport of all types in the UK.

Different types of cyclist

Many current consultations and plans attempt to cater for different types of cyclists, by suggesting that ‘confident commuters’ will be happy to use the road, whereas ‘less confident cyclists’ will instead use (less convenient)

Directness

One of the five main demands used to measure the quality of cycling infrastructure (the others are safety, cohesion

Disability Discrimination Act 1995

An Act to make it unlawful to discriminate against disabled persons in connection with employment, the provision of goods, facilities and services or the disposal or management of premises; to make provision about the employment of disabled pe

Distributor road

A distributor road is a road that links up access roads and through roads.

DMRB

Abbreviation of Design Manual for Roads and Bridges.

Door Zone

The 'door zone' is an area next to parked vehicles where a door can suddenly open into the path of an unwitting bike user.

Drain

Road furniture that can have a significant impact on the quality of cycle provision. 

Dual network

The dual network is a concept which provides two types of cycling infrastructure. The theory is that experienced and confident cyclists will use the roads, while those less experienced or confident will use off-road facilities.

Dual provision

Dual provision is a design approach which involves employing two different (parallel) types of cycling infrastructure.

Dutch Bicycle Master Plan

A 1999 document, produced by the Fietsberaad, that documents the history of cycling in the Netherlands from 1890 up until 1999. 

Dynamic envelope

'Dynamic envelope' refers to the typical space someone takes up while cycling. It will be larger than the static width because people will 'wobble' while travelling along. 

Dynamo

A dynamo is a small electrical generator which uses the motion of the wheels to generate electricity.

ECF

European Cyclists Federation

Effective width

Effective width refers to the usable width of cycling provision.

Elephants Footprints

A term used to describe a series of square road markings, which delineate cycle crossings of carriageways.

End of route

"End of route" is a road sign (Diagram 965 in TSRGD) which traffic engineers use to mean "we've given up on this cycle path now, you're on your own from here."

ETA

The Environmental Transport Association. A vehicle breakdown and transport organisation. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_Transport_Association for more details.

Exhibition Road

A costly shared space scheme in west London that has largely failed to make the street environment significantly better for cycling, principally as a result of a failure to either

Experimental Traffic Order

A form of Traffic Order, which traffic authorities have the power to impose without consultation.

Facility of the Month

Good and bad cycling facilities of the month, maintained by CEoGB and Warrington Cycle Campaign respectively.

Faculty of Public Health

Describes itself as '...the standard setting body for specialists in public health in the United Kingdom.'

Fatality Rates

'Fatality rate' refers to the number of fatalities, by exposure - be that distance travelled by a particular mode, or time spent travelling by that particular mode.

Fietsberaad

The Fietsberaad is the Dutch bicycle council. It is a government organisation, composed of experts in bicycle design, from across the Netherlands.

It is a founding member of the Dutch Cycling Embassy.

Fietsersbond

The Fietsersbond is the Dutch Cyclists Union, a campaigning group for better cycling conditions. It has around 35,000 members, and is a partner in the Dutch Cycling Embassy.

Filter

A filter is infrastructure which permits one mode of transport through but prevents another.

An example of this would be a bollard which prevents motor vehicles from passing but allows bicycles.

Filtered permeability

A term coined initially by Steve Melia to describe road design that still allows through-access for walking and cycling, but removes it for motor traffic.

Flatness

"The Netherlands is flat, which is why everyone cycles there."

Floating bus stop

Also known as a 'bus stop bypass', this is an arrangement that involves a cycleway running behind the passenger boarding area at a bus stop, between an island and the footway.

Flush kerb

A kerb which is level with the surrounding area. There is no height difference between the kerb and the carriageway, cycle track or footpath. 

Fly parking

'Fly parking' describes informally parking bicycles by (and locking them to) street furniture.

Typically it is symptomatic of a lack of adequate designated cycle parking, and/or space to park bicycles.

FoE

Pressure group Friends of the Earth

Footpath

See also: 

A path away from roads. Not to be confused with a footway, which run alongside roads.

Footway

See also: 

The technical term for what is commonly called a pavement in the UK, and a sidewalk in the US.

Forgivingness

'Forgivingness' is one of the principles of the Dutch system of Sustainable Safety.

Free parking

Often considered to be the intervention that will save the High Street, despite much evidence to the contrary.

Get Britain Cycling

See: 

Report by the APPCG published in April 2013.

Grade separation

A junction treatment that involves vertical separation of two or more different routes, placing them at different heights. For bicycle traffic, this will typically involve an underpass, or a bridge over a road. 

Grating

A grating is a cover for a drain, allowing water to enter while preventing objects (and people!) from entering.

Grid

Term used to describe the dense network of safe, pleasant cycle routes which is required to enable mass cycling.

Guardrail

A fence along the outside edge of a footway, to prevent pedestrians crossing or walking on or across the carrigeway, along desire lines.

Guided bus

A bus that is fitted with special steering equipment to allow it to be driven along a narrow busway without the driver needing to steer.

Gully

A gully is a drain built into the highway, designed to remove surface water from the carriageway (or cycleway). 

Handcycles

A bicycle or tricycle pedalled by hand rather than foot. Wheelchairs can also be adapted handcycles, with an (attached) front wheel powered by hand pedalling.

Head

In traffic signal control, a head refers to the cluster of signals, on a signal pole.

Health and wellbeing

(Health commissioning thing.)

Health benefits

The health benefits of cycling are well known. Cycling is typically considered one of the two best forms of exercise, along with swimming, as it provides exercise without impact on joints.

Health Protection Agency

A 'non-departmental' government body, charged with protecting public health in the UK. (Subsumed into Public Health England in early 2013.) 

HEAT

HEAT stands for Health Economic Assessment Tool.

Helmet compulsion

The idea that cyclists should be forced to wear helmets for their own safety, by law.

Helmet Freedom

An Australian campaigning organisation that argues for the repeal of Australia's mandatory helmet laws, arguing that bicycle helmets should be a matter of personal choice.

Helmets

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Hembrow, David

A Briton who moved to the Netherlands in 2008, and maintains the blog “A view from the cycle path” about the cycling infrastructure in The Netherlands.

Hi Viz

Short for 'high visibility'. Used to describe clothing (or other aids) that aim to increase conspicuity of people cycling, or walking.

Typically 'hi viz' takes the form of a bright yellow jacket, with reflective strips. 

Hierarchy of Provision

The Hierarchy of Provision is a list of traffic interventions which was intended to help highways designers create better conditions for cycling.

Home zones

See also: 

Home zones are a residential street treatment that involve reducing motor traffic speeds and the general dominance of motor traffic, more diverse use of street space (particularly by residents), increasing natural surveillance, and fostering a greater

Homogeneity

'Homogeneity' is one of the principles of the Dutch system of Sustainable Safety.

Hub

A hub is the central part of a (bicycle) wheel that contains the axle.

Hump

A method of vehicle speed reduction using a raised section of road which cannot be driven over at high speeds. Humps are also colloquially known as 'sleeping policemen'. 

Hybrid Cycle Track

A 'hybrid cycle track' is a British description for a stepped cycle track, a cycleway that is built higher than the carriageway, but lower than the footway - at an intermediate height, between the two.

Hyde Park

A park in central London, responsible for a large proportion of journeys made on the London Cycle Hire Scheme (and not just by middle-aged white men).

IAM

Institute of Advanced Motorists

Inclusive bicycle

A bicycle adapted in one way or another to accommodate its user's disability. This could be a tricycle, tandem, handcycle, or a wide variety of other types. 

Inclusivity

The principle that design for cycling should not exclude any particular user, be it because it is too hostile, too intimidating, or cannot accommodate their type of cycle.

Increased cycling rates

"Cycling paths won't bring about increased cycling rates" See the wiki for the Embassy view on this

Induced demand

“If you build more space for motor traffic, you will get more motor traffic”. Induced demand is the idea that building more roads will generate more demand for those roads.

Infrastructure safari

A term used by the Cycling Embassy of Great Britain, and coined by Sally Hinchcliffe, to describe organised visits to particular areas to look at and understand cycling provision in a particular area. 

Intergreen

See also: 

An intergreen period is the amount of time between the end of a green phase, and the start of another green phase.

International Cycling Infrastructure Best Practice Study

A report commissioned by Transport for London. A team of highway engineers and planners visited a number of global cities, examining best practice in cycle infrastructure design.

Junctions

A junction is the point at which roads meet; or the point at which cycleways meet roads, or each other. This creates potential conflict between users travelling in different directions, which has to be managed with good design.

Kangaroo

See also: 

High quality and modern child-carrying tricycle (similar to the Bakfiets or Bullit) made by Danish company Winthur.

Kerbside activity

A term used to refer to parking and loading (by motor vehicles) at the edge of the carriageway, adjacent to the footway.

KSI

Abbreviation of Killed or Seriously Injured.

LCC

The London Cycling Campaign. LCC is the prime mover behind the 'Space4Cycling' manifesto: http://space4cycling.org/ 

Left hook

A 'left hook' involves a motor vehicle overtaking a person cycling, then turning left across the latter's path. Particularly dangerous where pedestrian guard railings are in place at the edge of a pavement.

Leisure cycling

Cycling purely for pleasure, without any other purpose.

The opposite of utility cycling.

LFGSS

“London Fixed Gear And Single Speed”. An internet forum for discussing cycling.

Light protection

More commonly refered to as light segregation, this is a method for separating a cycle lane from the carriageway by means of (typically temporary, or easily installed) physical ob

Lightly protected cycleway

A cycleway composed of a cycle lane separated from the carriageway by means of light protection.Cycle lane</body></html>

Links

A 'link' is a road or a street that connects between junctions.

LIP

LIP is an abbreviation of Local Implementation Plan.

LIPs are part of the structure that Transport for London (TfL) uses to deliver transport strategy in inner and outer London, by allocating money to the boroughs.

LLCS

Abbreviation for Low Level (Cycle) Signals.

Local shops

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London Cycling Design Standards

Transport for London's cycling design manual, covering requirements and guidance for the design of roads and streets for cycling.

Originally published in 2005, a new (and substantially improved) edition was released in 2014. 

Love London Go Dutch

London Cycling Campaign’s theme for the 2010 mayoral elections. All the candidates eventually signed up.

Low-level signals

Low-level signals are small repeater lights that mirror what is displayed by the larger, conventional, traffic signals at junctions. They make it easier for people cycling to see signals that apply to them, without having to crane their necks back.

LSTF

(Local Sustainable Transport Fund)

LTN

“Local Transport Note” - Traffic management guidance for local authorities, issued by the British Department for Transport

LTN 1/12

Current DfT guidance on Shared Use Routes for Pedestrians and Cyclists

LTN 2/08 Cycle Infrastructure Design

See also: 

The DfT’s cycling infrastructure design guidance.

LTP

Local Transport Plan

LTP3

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Lycra

A clothing material used extensively in performance cycle clothing.

lycra lout

Derogatory term used by some media sources against cyclists as a whole.

MAMIL

“Middle Aged Man In Lycra”. A favourite of journalists and bloggers who seek to turn cycling into a tribal thing done by a minority …  

Mandatory cycle lane

A cycle lane marked by a solid (unbroken) white line. It is 'mandatory' in the sense that drivers of motor vehicles are not permitted to enter it, rather than being mandatory for cyclists to use it.

Mayor's Vision for Cycling in London

A 2013 document produced by the Greater London Authority (GLA) and Transport for London, setting out then-Mayor Boris Johnson's plan for developing cycling in the capital - in particular, a focus on physically separated infrastructure on main roads

Mobility scooter

A mobility scooter is an electrically-powered scooter for those with mobility problems.

UK law divides mobility scooters (along with powered wheelchairs) into two categories - Class 2, and Class 3, invalid carriages.

Modal share

The percentage of the total share which a given mode of transport makes up. For example nationally cycling makes up a 2% modal share in the UK.

Monofunctionality

'Monofunctionality' is one of the principles of the Dutch system of Sustainable Safety.

MOVA

An acronym, standing for Microprocessor Optimised Vehicle Actuated control, a system developed by TRL in the 1980s, and used at signal-controlled junctions.

Must

When used in a standard, 'must' is a statutory obligation.

Naked streets

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Narrow, roads are ...

"Our roads are too narrow for cycle paths" See the wiki for the Embassy view on this 

National Association of City Transportation Officials

NACTO is a coalition of transport authorities in the USA, their mission being to "exchange of transportation ideas, insights, and practices among large central cities while fostering a cooperative approach to key national transportation issues.&qu

National Cycle Network

Much derided by cycle campaigners as a joke ("Notional Cycling Network" or "National Cycling Not-work" for example), the NCN is a bold attempt at creating a network of cycle routes across Britain. 

National Cycle Route

One of the principal routes that make up the National Cycle Network. Often abbreviated to NCR or NCN, e.g. NCR1. Contrast with Regional Cycle Route

National Planning Policy Framework

A document that sets out the government's planning policy for England, and how its policies on planning are expected to be applied.

Relevant passages on cycling include 

Paragraph 17 -

NCN

Also often used as a shorthand for National Cycle Route (even though the letters don’t match!)

Network

Used to describe a number of connected cycle routes. In Britain this word has been used to describe very weak networks, such as the National Cycle Network.

A more well-defined concept is the Grid, which is a network with specified density.

NICE

National Institute for Clinical Excellence

Obesity

Obesity is a term used to describe somebody who is very overweight with a high degree of body fat.

Omafiets

See also: 

The classic Dutch bike design.

Easily recognisable by the relaxed, upright posture of the rider and the curved bar on the frame.

Opafiets

See also: 

 ‘Opafiets’ means ‘grandfather bike’ but this classic design is ridden by men and women of all ages in the Netherlands.

Very similar to the omafiets, but with a crossbar.

OpenCycleMap

A worldwide cycle map based upon OpenStreetMap data

Out of town shopping

Often cited as a key reason why local high streets are becoming less busy. It is claimed that people prefer to drive to out of town shopping centres because parking is cheaper/free, and they offer greater convenience.

Overrun area

An overrun area is a portion of road surface that is designed to accommodate the turning circles of large vehicles, while ensuring tight geometry (to slow down speeds) for conventional vehicles.

Passenger Car Unit

A Passenger Car Unit is a measure used primarily to assess highway capacity, for modelling purposes. Different vehicles are assigned different values, according to the space they take up.

Passing law

A passing law refers to legislation that requires to drivers to pass people cycling at a specified minimum distance.

Pavement

Pedestrian path alongside a highway. This is the colloquial term for footway, which is the precise term in legislation.

Pedestrian phase

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Pedestrian refuge

A specific element of road infrastructure, used to allow pedestrians to cross larger roads in multiple phases. Often these have some physcal protection from traffic, and can be combined with pinch points.

Pegasus crossing

A push-button controlled crossing which permits equestrian as well as pedestrian use. A second push-button box is mounted higher up such that the horse rider does not need to dismount to operate the crossing.

Pelican crossing

PEdestrian LIght CoNtrolled (yes, that is where the name comes from) crossing is an example of a controlled crossing where pedestrians push a button to indicate they wish to cross.

Phase

In traffic control a phase refers to an indication shown to motor traffic, cycle traffic, or pedestrians.

Pinch point

An element of road design which narrows the carriageway artifically - often at pedestrian junctions - with the intent of slowing and calming traffic.

Pinch stile

A gap between housing, railings, etc.

Planning gain / Planning obligation

See also: 

Land, and buildings, are worth a lot more on the open market with planning permission for development than without planning permission.

Playing Out

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Pollution

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Pram arm

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Predictability

'Predictability' is one of the principles of the Dutch system of Sustainable Safety.

Presumed liability

'Presumed liability' (often referred to as 'strict liability') is an element of civil law that, in crashes involving vulnerable road users, finds the more powerful road user liable by default, unless it can be clearly proven that t

Priority

Often described as ‘right of way’, priority concerns who should be yielding to whom at points of traffic intersection - road junctions, pedestrian crossings, etc.

Propensity to Cycle Tool

The National Propensity to Cycle Tool (PCT) is an online and interactive planning support tool to provide an evidence base to inform investment in cycling.

It is available at pct.bike.

Public Right of Way

Public Rights of Way include footpaths, bridleways, restricted byways, and byways open to all traffic (BOATs). They are all highways, and are shown on Definitive Maps.

Puffin crossing

A type of pedestrian crossing, the name “puffin” deriving from “Pedestrian User-Friendly INtelligent crossing”.

RADAR

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Raised entry treatment

A speed table which is built across the width of a side road at a junction. It creates a level crossing surface for pedestrians (and cycle users where part of a cycle track).

RDRF

The Road Danger Reduction Forum. A group of transport officials and professionals who work on cycling walking, transport planning and other related areas.

Refuge

A physical, kerbed "island" placed in the carriageway design to assist pedestrians and cycle users to cross the road in more than one stage, but without giving any specific priority.

Regional cycle route

A cycle route planned and maintained by a local authority or other regional body.

Repeater

To be completed. Used in "20mph zone"

Return on Investment (RoI)

How the DfT evaluates whether it’s spending its money wisely. Cycling spending tends to provide ratios of 3 or more to 1 in direct and indirect benefits.

Revenue

See also: 

Revenue (spending), in reference to cycling, applies to the immediate use of cash on projects, usually day-to-day running, or maintenance. 

Rising bollards

A rising bollard is a physical barrier which sinks into the ground when a permitted vehicle is approaching, but otherwise prevents unauthorised vehicles from passing through. 

RLJ (Red Light Jumping)

An RLJ has occurred when a vehicle has crossed the stop line while the associated traffic light signal was red.

RNIB

See also: 

The Royal National Institute of Blind People.

Road Safety Audit

A Road Safety Audit is an evaluation of a new highway scheme, before, during and after construction, with the intention of identifying potential safety issues, and to propose measures to eliminate them.

Road Tax

This is an incorrect term for Vehicle Excise Duty or vehicle tax - a tax on vehicles emissions.

RoadPeace

The national charity for road crash victims and their families.

Royal Society for Public Health

The Royal Society for Public Health is an independent, multi-disciplinary charity organisation, dedicated to the promotion and protection of collective human health and wellbeing.

RTA - Road Traffic Act

A Road Traffic Act is an act of Parliament (i.e. a UK law or regulation) which relates to the public highways.

RTC - Road traffic collision

See also: 

"Road traffic collision" is the official Police phrase used to describe a crash. 

RTI

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Rubbish bins

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Running lane

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S75

Safe Routes to School

A major project lead by Sustrans to create safe cycling and walking routes serving schools located across the UK.

Safety

One of the five main demands used to measure the quality of cycling infrastructure (the others are cohesiondire

Safety In Numbers

'Safety in Numbers' is the theory that there is a correlation between cycling levels in an area, or country, and the relative safety of cycling - that higher cycling levels correlate with higher safety levels. 

Saturation flow

Saturation flow is the (maximum) flow across a stop line, during green from a discharging queue, typically expressed in Passenger Car Units per hour.

School zones

A misguided attempt to improve child safety by reducing motor speeds on roads outside schools. Sadly these roads tend to already be clogged by cars, and children spend more time on roads where they live.

SCOOT

SCOOT is an abbreviation for 'Split Cycle Offset Optimisation Technique'.

Section 106

A mechanism of planning gain whereby developers make a financial contribution towards infrastructure needed to support their development. Infrastructure can include transport, schools, etc.

Section 278 Agreement

This refers to S278 of the Highways Act 1980 (as amended) and is essentially a formal agreement between a highway authority and another party to make changes to an existing hi

Section 38 Agreement

This refers to S38 of the Highways Act 1980 (as amended) and is essentially a formal agreement for a highway authority to adopt (take over responsibility for) roads.

Secured by Design

'Secured by Design' is a national police project focused on reducing crime through the design of buildings and the built environment.

Segregation

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Semi-segregation

See also: 
(See ‘Royal College Street’) [also soft segregation]

Separation

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Service road

A service road is a road running parallel to a faster, or busier road, which provides access to private properties, shops, industry, or farms (depending on the location.

Seville

Spanish city which had historically very low levels of cycling, but which managed to raise cycling levels from 0.5% of all journeys to 6.6% by 2009, through a combination of protected cycle routes on main roads, and removal of motor traffic from areas

Shall

When used in a standard, 'shall' is a requirement.

Shared space

A broad term that can be used to describe many different forms of street treatment.

Shared use

A term used to describe a footway that legally allows cycling.

Sharks' Teeth

A term used to describe the Dutch (and indeed European) equivalent of the British painted  'Give Way' marking. 

Sheffield stand

A type of cycle stand, typically in an upside-down, squared U-shape.

Shopping

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Should

When used in a standard, 'should' is a recommendation. 

Shuttle working

Shuttle working refers to the use of traffic signals to alternate flows on a one-way section of road. Most typically found at roadworks, but can also be used to create attractive conditions for cycling on, say, bridges. See example linked to below.

Sight line

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Signalised junction

Group term [to be completed] 

Simultaneous green

'Simultaneous green' junctions (or 'all-ways' green, or 'scramble', junctions) give people cycling and walking a combined dedicated green phase, while motor traffic is stopped in all directions, which allows both types of road u

Single surface

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Sleeping policeman

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Slip lane

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Slow marking

The 'Slow' marking is a painted marking on the road surface, which has the intention of encouraging road users to slow down. 

smidsy

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Sociable cycling

'Sociable cycling' refers to the ability to cycle side-by-side, or to hold conversations while cycling. It is an important requirement for a good cycling environment.

Soft measures

'Soft measures' refer to methods of reducing car use through the use of promotion, marketing, personalised travel planning, training, and so on.

Speed limits

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speed of ROI

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Speed table

A large road hump across the width of a carriageway (or a cycle track). Has a flat top and can either run kerb to kerb or stop short to leave a channel for water to pass.

Speed table

[too long to CSV]

Stage

In traffic control, a stage is a series of phases that run together - for instance, a green for motor traffic and cycle traffic to proceed ahead, while left-turning mo

Staging diagram

A staging diagram is a way of visually demonstrating the permitted phase movements in a series of stages, making up one compl

Stats 19

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Stop Climate Chaos

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Stopping Sight Distance

Stopping Sight Distance (or SSD for short) is is the distance required for a highway user to perceive, react and stop safely, before encountering a hazard or potential collision. It is measured in a straight line between two points at the cen

Subjective safety

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Sustainable safety

'Sustainable Safety' is the Dutch principle of design which makes roads and streets easy to use, self-explanatory and safe by default, preventing crashes from occurring. A better English expression is 'Intrinsic Safety'.

Sustainable Transport

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Sustrans

Short for Sustainable Transport, Sustrans is a national charity that promotes the use of sustainable transport. Flagship projects of Sustrans include the National Cycle Network, Safe Routes to Schools, Connect2, and Free Range Kids.

Swept Path Analysis

The calculation and analyis (now performed with software) of the movement and path of the wheels (and body parts) of a vehicle, when that vehicle is turning. 

Tactile

In highway engineering, there are three main uses:

Tactile paving

Tactile paving (or surface) is a textured surface which gives different information to blind and partially-sighted people.

Through road

A through road is for fast traffic, travelling longer distances, in large volumes. Motorways, trunk roads, bypasses, and so on.

Tiger crossing

Like a zebra crossing, but cycling is permitted. See attached image and this article on a recently installed crossing in London. 

 

Toucan crossing

Two CAN cross (sigh!). A crossing for use by pedestrians and cycle-users at once.

Traffic island

Or ‘roundabout’

Traffic Management Orders

Or ‘TMO’ - used in some London locations instead of TROs (q.v.).

Transport Planning Society

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Transport Poverty

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Tricycle

A bicycle with three wheels, whether the two wheels are in front (like a Christiana trike) or behind (like a Pashley trike)

Trixi mirror

A convex mirror attached to traffic signals to help drivers (especially HGVs) to see down the side of their vehicle for the presence of people on cycles, especially before turning left.

TRL

The Transport Research Laboratory, at Crowthorne in Berkshire.

TRO

Abbreviation for Traffic Regulation Order.

TSRGD

Abbreviation of the Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions.

Turbo roundabout

A specific form of roundabout for motorists, with a spiral pattern that commits motorists to choosing the correct lane before entering the roundabout. Lane changes on the roundabout itself are eliminated.

Uniformity of provision

'Uniformity of provision' is a design philosophy that means cycling infrastructure is suitable for all potential users, whether they are young or old, fast or slow, experienced or inexperienced. One design approach is employed for all potential users.

Upstand

The vertical portion of a kerb between different areas of a highway (for instance, between the carriageway and the footway, or between a cycleway and a footway).

Utility cycling

The act of using a bike for a day-to-day task, such as shopping, commuting, going to the cinema, visiting friends, etc. Any cycling done simply as a means of transport rather than as a sport or leisure activity.

UWAC

“Understanding Walking and Cycling” - A seminal study looking at why people don't choose to walk or cycle for short journeys in the UK. See http://www.roadsafetyobservatory.com/Evidence/Details/10519 for the full report.

VED

Vehicle Excise Duty. Commonly and incorrectly referred to as ‘Road Tax’, although media organisations will occasionally make the effort to use the more correct ‘car tax’.

Vehicular cycling

A term coined by John Forester to describe riding a bicycle as if it were a motor vehicle.

Visibility Splay

A measurement of the distance at which users should be able to see left and right as they approach a junction on the minor arm. It is composed of an 'x' distance and a 'y' distance, as shown in the Highways England diagram below.

Vision for Cycling in London

The Mayor of London's "Vision for Cycling" document, released in March 2013, outlines the plans for the future of cycling

Vulnerable Road User Audit

A vulnerable road user audit (VRUA) is an assessment of either an existing road network, or planned changes to the road network, including footways, cycleways, bridleways, and other links. 

Woonerf

See also: 

The woonerf (plural woonerven) is a type of Dutch residential street, designed to be safe, and quiet, with no through-traffic except walking. The name literally means 'living courtyard'.

X distance

A measurement involved in visibility splays.

Y Distance

A measurement involved in visibility splays.

Zebra crossing

A controlled pedestrian crossing, with black and white stripes on the road running across the pedestrian walking line.