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Route Infrastructure and the Risk of Injuries to Bicyclists: A Case-Crossover Study

Publisher: 
American Journal of Public Health
Publication date: 
December 2012
Document file: 
Abstract: 

Objectives. We compared cycling injury risks of 14 route types and other route infrastructure features.

Methods. We recruited 690 city residents injured while cycling in Toronto or Vancouver, Canada. A case-crossover design compared route infrastructure at each injury site to that of a randomly selected control site from the same trip.

Results. Of 14 route types, cycle tracks had the lowest risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.54), about one ninth the risk of the reference: major streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure. Risks on major streets were lower without parked cars (adjusted OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.96) and with bike lanes (adjusted OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.29, 1.01). Local streets also had lower risks (adjusted OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.84). Other infrastructure characteristics were associated with increased risks: streetcar or train tracks (adjusted OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.1), downhill grades (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.7, 3.1), and construction (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.9).

Conclusions. The lower risks on quiet streets and with bike-specific infrastructure along busy streets support the route-design approach used in many northern European countries. Transportation infrastructure with lower bicycling injury risks merits public health support to reduce injuries and promote cycling.

(Am J Public Health. 2012;102:2336–2343. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300762)

"Cycle tracks", the routes with lowest risks, are defined as "Paved path meant for cyclist use alongside major streets, separated by a physical barrier (e.g., a curb or bollards)".

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Mapping Cycle-friendliness – towards a national standard

Publisher: 
Cyclenation / CTC
Publication date: 
April 2008
Abstract: 

Cyclenation in collaboration with CTC would like the guidance contained in the appendices to this paper to be adopted as the national standard for cycle mapping in the UK. Cycle mapping has become far too diverse with many maps bearing little relation to the actual conditions for cyclists on the ground, with a unhealthy preoccupation with ‘facilities’. Now is the time to adopt a common approach to useful tool for all people using bicycles.

Covers the guidelines used for the Cheltenham Cycle Map in 2004, with roads coloured according to various criteria relevant to cyclists, including reference to Bikeability levels needed to use each road.

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Cycle Paths and City Traffic, 1945 - 1995

Publisher: 
Thesis by Joe Goddard, Universitry of Bristol
Publication date: 
September 1995
Abstract: 

It is my intention in this dissertation to look at aspects of the history of the popularity of Cycling as a transport form since 1945. The focus will be on cycling policy in a comparative perspective, and its expression in the form of provision of traffic infrastructure, especially cycle paths. This will be seen through the window of the urban transport mix.

With thanks to Mikael Colville-Andersen of Copenhagenize.com for digging this out!

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Reported Road Casualties in Great Britain: 2011 Report

Publisher: 
DfT
Publication date: 
September 2012
Document file: 
Abstract: 

Key findings from the RRCGB 2011 report include:

  • In 2011, there were a total of 203,950 casualties of all severities in road accidents reported to the police, 2 per cent lower than in 2010. There were 1,901 people killed, a 3 per cent increase than in 2010 and 23,122 were seriously injured, up 2 per cent. Motor vehicle traffic increased slightly (0.2 per cent) over the same period.
  • The number of fatalities fell for three types of road user, with a fall of 22 per for bus and coach occupants, 10 per cent for motor cyclists, 4 per cent for pedal cyclists. Pedestrian and Car occupants rose by 12 and 6 per cent respectively.
  • In 2011, it is estimated 9,990 reported casualties (5 per cent of all road casualties) occurred when someone was driving whilst over the legal alcohol limit. The provisional number of people estimated to have been killed in drink drive accidents was 280 (15 per cent of all road fatalities).
  • The rate per billion vehicle miles for total casualties in reported road accidents and the rate of people killed or seriously injured (KSI) in 2011 were both 15 per cent lower than the 2005-09 average. For fatalities alone, the 2011 rate was 32 per cent lower than the average.
  • Failed to look properly was again the most frequently reported contributory factor and was reported in 42 per cent of all accidents reported to the police in 2011.
  • In 2011, the economic welfare cost of reported road accidents was estimated to be around £15.6 billion.

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Vulnerable road users

Publisher: 
The Psychologist
Publication date: 
September 2012
Abstract: 

Jon Sutton interviews Ian Walker about how psychology can assist non-car drivers.


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Psychology on the road

Publisher: 
The Psychologist
Publication date: 
September 2012
Abstract: 

Psychological perspectives on drivers and driving have been with us for since before the advent of mass motoring. The car’s unique potential to afford freedom and compromise safety has been a focus of formal psychological study for almost as long. This has resulted in a canon of excellent research, the shaping of interventions and legislation, and the saving and enhancement of lives. In seeking to prevent collisions, it has had quite an impact!

This collection of articles looks at a range of topics, including the use of neuroergonomics to improve driver safety warnings; the particular psychological issues with both younger and older drivers; how we can protect vulnerable road users such as cyclists and pedestrians; and the psychology of sustainable transport.


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The psychology of sustainable transport

Publisher: 
The Psychologist
Publication date: 
September 2012
Abstract: 

Cars contribute to local air pollution, traffic danger, congestion and poor physical health due to lack of exercise. If the final goal of sustainable development is to sustain or improve the quality of life for all, now and into the longterm future, the current growth in private car use is clearly unsustainable. Understanding why most people prefer using a car over other modes of transport for their daily travel, and how they can be persuaded to use their cars less or even abandon them altogether, is therefore an important goal for psychology.

Persuading people to use their cars less is important for cycling as transport, too!

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Young driver challenges

Publisher: 
The Psychologist
Publication date: 
September 2012
Abstract: 

It is clear that young people have the highest crash involvement of any group. What are the direct and indirect factors associated with these high crash rates? How do biological, personality, fatigue and experiential factors affect risky driving behaviours? And what potential countermeasures can be deployed?

Of possible relevance to cycling in that understanding how people drive, and what they find difficult to learn, could make a big difference to how cyclists should behave or be provided for on our roads.

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Instructions for the Completion of Road Accident Reports from non-CRASH Sources

Publisher: 
DfT
Publication date: 
September 2011
Abstract: 

The STATS20 manual provides a detailed explanation of the information, referred to as STATS19, which is the set of data which has to be collected by a Police Officer when an injury road accident is reported to them. ). It is for the use of police forces and local authorities (and their agents) where data is not collected by a police force using CRASH software.

This is the data collected when road vehicles collide.

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Shared Use Operational Review 2012

Publisher: 
Atkins / DfT
Publication date: 
May 2012
Abstract: 

Atkins was commissioned as part of a multidisciplinary project team which includes MVA Consultancy, Phil Jones Associates and TRL to carry out evidence based research into the factors which influence the design and operation of segregated and unsegregated pedestrian and cyclist shared use facilities. The research project helped inform the preparation of a new Local Transport Note on shared use routes for pedestrians and cyclists.

At the core of this research are user behavioural studies to support an understanding of how pedestrians and cyclists interact on unsegregated and segregated shared use facilities.

This technical note presents the findings of research into the factors which affect the operation and quality of shared use facilities adjacent-to-road. An evidence based approach was used to undertake comprehensive case studies in Norwich and Cambridge, supported by additional evidence from Bristol, York, Peterborough and Newcastle.


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