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Bikeability Hazard Perception Report

Publisher: 
National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) - for DfT
Publication date: 
March 2015
Abstract: 

Research that shows Bikeability training does give children more confidence to negotiate roads, but doesn't appear to lead to any increase in cycling frequency among children.

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Evaluation of the Delft Bicycle Network Plan

Publisher: 
Dutch Ministry of Transport and Public Works
Publication date: 
July 1987
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Copenhagen Bicycle Account 2014

Publisher: 
City of Copenhagen
Publication date: 
May 2015
Abstract: 

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Road Traffic Signs and Regulations in the Netherlands

Publisher: 
Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment
Publication date: 
October 2013
Abstract: 

Abridged (English) version of Dutch road traffic signs and regulations.

Full (Dutch) version available at http://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0004825/

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Making Space for Cycling

Publisher: 
CycleNation
Publication date: 
April 2014
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Promoting walking and cycling

Publisher: 
Policy Press, University of Bristol
Publication date: 
August 2013
Abstract: 

Promoting walking and cycling proposes solutions to one of the most pressing problems in contemporary British transport planning. The need to develop more sustainable urban mobility lies at the heart of energy and environmental policies and has major implications for the planning of cities and for the structure of economy and society. However, most people feel either unable or unwilling to incorporate travel on foot or by bike into their everyday journeys. This book uses innovative quantitative and qualitative research methods to examine in depth, and in an international and historical context, why so many people fail to travel in ways that are deemed by most to be desirable. It proposes evidence-based policy solutions that could increase levels of walking and cycling substantially. This book is essential reading for planners and policy makers who are developing and implementing transport policies at both national and local levels, plus researchers and students in the fields of mobility, transport, sustainability and urban planning.


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Get Britain Cycling - Report from the Inquiry

Publisher: 
All Party Parliamentary Cycling Group
Publication date: 
April 2013
Abstract: 

Author’s Foreword: Cycling on the Cusp of Greatness

I, like most professional transport planners, providers and researchers of my generation, have grown up thinking that cycling, though worthy, is of small significance compared with the great questions of cars,
traffic and public transport, or the universal significance of walking.

This applies, I think, equally to those who saw the future as building roads for an unending growth in car use, and those who favoured traffic restraint and better public transport – and even those who cycled regularly themselves. We were wrong. The evidence demonstrates quite clearly that, in the words of one witness to the Inquiry, Andy Salkeld, of Leicester City Council, cycling is the mode of transport ‘on the cusp of greatness’.

Its potential is seen already in Cambridge, the flagship city of cycling in Britain, and the potential for rapid and prolonged growth from a low base is seen in many other places as discussed here. The most evident symbol of the complex developments affecting cycling at present is seen in London, a city where cycling overall, at around 2% of all journeys, falls far short of many smaller towns in the UK, and great
cities overseas, yet London boroughs – Hackney, Islington, Lambeth, Wandsworth, Hammersmith and Fulham – are all in the top dozen places in the Census ranking of cycling to work. The rates of growth
compare well with the best; the new technical methodologies, design standards, and political and professional commitment at all levels are of world standard; and already in 2011 there were in total more peak–period cyclists than cars crossing the Thames by the six great bridges of Lambeth, Westminster, Waterloo, Blackfriars, Southwark and London Bridge - an astonishing demonstration of the contribution already made by cycling to traffic flow in the City.

In practical terms for the national average figure around 2%, we should see the important places and developments as having a potential somewhere in the region of 30%-40%, which would put cycling on a
par with any of the other modes. Both experience and statistical analysis suggests that this is achievable, the cost of doing so being in the order of £10-£20 per head of the population per year, sustained for some decades, a figure which would simply accord with cycling having the same share of resources as it currently does of travel. The evidence is that the economic benefits in terms of health and traffic
congestion alone are substantially greater than the cost, and more indirect judgements indicate that the resulting improvement in quality of life and the attractiveness or residential areas and town centres
adds to these benefits.

It is not uncommon for claims to be made which look good on paper but are unrealistic in terms of practical politics or financial constraints. In this case, the signs are very good. An expansion of the role of cycling accords with the different priorities of all the main political parties, and gives scope for politicians to build popularity with their voters, and a remarkable legacy. The time scale is such that effects would build-up over a generation, giving a continuity of attention and policy which would justify the emerging signs of cross-party agreement on strategy and financial commitments.

Phil Goodwin
London April 2013


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Get Britian Cycling - Summary and Recommendations

Publisher: 
All Party Parliamentary Cycling Group
Publication date: 
April 2013
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Abstract: 

Too many people in the UK feel they have no choice but to travel in ways that are dangerous, unhealthy, polluting and costly, not just to their own wallets but also to the public purse. Urgent action is required to address Britain’s chronic levels of obesity, heart disease, air pollution and congestion if we are to catch up with other countries in the developed world.

There is an alternative. When more people cycle or walk, public health improves, obesity reduces and roads become safer. By changing how people travel, we can create places where people want to live, work, shop and do business. We can make people healthier, happier and wealthier. We can reduce costs to our NHS.

To realise the full potential of this vision will require a fundamental cultural shift in how we think about the way we travel. Cycling needs to be not just a personal option, when we decide how to travel for work, school or leisure. It should be a core issue when planning our streets, roads, buildings and communities.

 We need to train cyclists and drivers alike to travel legally and safely.

Above all, we need a bold vision from government that puts people first. We need those strolling the corridors in Westminster, throughout Whitehall departments and in town halls around the UK to recognise the powerful case for substantial investment in cycling, and the huge benefits this would deliver for town and countryside alike.

The demand is there. The Olympics and Tour de France helped cycling catch the public’s attention in 2012. The Times’ Cities Fit for Cycling campaign has captured the public imagination; a Parliamentary debate on cycling last year galvanised extraordinary cross-party support; and the evidence presented at this inquiry has shown a remarkable degree of consensus among cycling organisations, local authorities,
health professionals and others about what needs to be done.

Yet massive and unnecessary barriers are preventing us from capitalising on this enthusiasm. A window of opportunity is open, but not forever: as memories of sporting success fade and the frustration of limited opportunities continue, we are in danger of squandering the Olympic legacy and failing to create a healthier, more active UK.

This generation of politicians has the chance to be long remembered for having a vision for cycling that includes us all. Put simply, Britain needs to re-learn how to cycle. This report sets out how this can be done.


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Route Infrastructure and the Risk of Injuries to Bicyclists: A Case-Crossover Study

Publisher: 
American Journal of Public Health
Publication date: 
December 2012
Document file: 
Abstract: 

Objectives. We compared cycling injury risks of 14 route types and other route infrastructure features.

Methods. We recruited 690 city residents injured while cycling in Toronto or Vancouver, Canada. A case-crossover design compared route infrastructure at each injury site to that of a randomly selected control site from the same trip.

Results. Of 14 route types, cycle tracks had the lowest risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.54), about one ninth the risk of the reference: major streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure. Risks on major streets were lower without parked cars (adjusted OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.96) and with bike lanes (adjusted OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.29, 1.01). Local streets also had lower risks (adjusted OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.84). Other infrastructure characteristics were associated with increased risks: streetcar or train tracks (adjusted OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.1), downhill grades (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.7, 3.1), and construction (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.9).

Conclusions. The lower risks on quiet streets and with bike-specific infrastructure along busy streets support the route-design approach used in many northern European countries. Transportation infrastructure with lower bicycling injury risks merits public health support to reduce injuries and promote cycling.

(Am J Public Health. 2012;102:2336–2343. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300762)

"Cycle tracks", the routes with lowest risks, are defined as "Paved path meant for cyclist use alongside major streets, separated by a physical barrier (e.g., a curb or bollards)".

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Mapping Cycle-friendliness – towards a national standard

Publisher: 
Cyclenation / CTC
Publication date: 
April 2008
Abstract: 

Cyclenation in collaboration with CTC would like the guidance contained in the appendices to this paper to be adopted as the national standard for cycle mapping in the UK. Cycle mapping has become far too diverse with many maps bearing little relation to the actual conditions for cyclists on the ground, with a unhealthy preoccupation with ‘facilities’. Now is the time to adopt a common approach to useful tool for all people using bicycles.

Covers the guidelines used for the Cheltenham Cycle Map in 2004, with roads coloured according to various criteria relevant to cyclists, including reference to Bikeability levels needed to use each road.

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