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Reduced Sensitivity to Visual Looming Inflates the Risk Posed by Speeding Vehicles When Children Try to Cross the Road

Publisher: 
Psychological Science
Publication date: 
April 2011
Abstract: 

Almost all locomotor animals respond to visual looming or to discrete changes in optical size. The need to detect and process looming remains critically important for humans in everyday life. Road traffic statistics confirm that children up to 15 years old are overrepresented in pedestrian casualties. We demonstrate that, for a given pedestrian crossing time, vehicles traveling faster loom less than slower vehicles, which creates a dangerous illusion in which faster vehicles may be perceived as not approaching.

City Cycling

Publisher: 
MIT Press
Publication date: 
October 2012
Abstract: 

Bicycling in cities is booming, for many reasons: health and environmental benefits, time and cost savings, more and better bike lanes and paths, innovative bike sharing programs, and the sheer fun of riding. City Cycling offers a guide to this urban cycling renaissance, with the goal of promoting cycling as sustainable urban transportation available to everyone.

Pedalling towards Safety

Publisher: 
ETSC
Publication date: 
September 2012
Abstract: 

Cycling safety data for whole countries, across the EU.

Shows UK with low cycling distances and high deaths per distance cycled, and Denmark and the Netherlands the opposite.

Collection of Cycle Concepts 2012

Publisher: 
Cycling Embassy of Denmark
Publication date: 
May 2012
Abstract: 

The first edition of Collection of Cycle Concepts was published in 2000 and enjoyed a wide circulation among everyone interested in bicycle traffic. The simultaneous publication of the English version spread the Danish bicycle traffic experience to many parts of the world.

The second edition, Collection of Cycle Concepts 2012, updates the field, featuring new challenges and the latest knowledge.

The Health Impact of Mandatory Bicycle Helmet Laws

Publication date: 
January 2012
Abstract: 

This article seeks to answer the question whether mandatory bicycle helmet laws deliver a net societal health benefit. The question is addressed using a simple model. The model recognizes a single health benefit – reduced head injuries, and a single health cost – increased morbidity due to foregone exercise from reduced cycling. Using estimates suggested in the literature of the effectiveness of helmets, the health benefits of cycling, head injury rates, and reductions in cycling, leads to the following conclusions.

Making Cycling Irresistible: Lessons from The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany

Publisher: 
Bloustein School of Planning & Public Policy, Rutgers University
Publication date: 
June 2007
Abstract: 

This article shows how the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany have made
bicycling a safe, convenient and practical way to get around their cities. The analysis relies on national aggregate data as well as case studies of large and small cities in each country.

Cycling: The Way Ahead for Towns and Cities

Publisher: 
European Commission
Publication date: 
January 1999
Abstract: 

From the Foreword

Every day European cities demonstrate that a reduction in the use of private cars is not just desirable but feasible. Amsterdam, Barcelona, Bremen, Copenhagen, Edinburgh, Ferrara, Graz and Strasbourg apply incentives that favour public transport, car-sharing and bicycles, along with restrictive measures on the use of private cars in their town centres.

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