safety

The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use: health impact assessment study

Publisher: 
BMJ
Publication date: 
July 2011
Document file: 
Abstract: 

Objective

To estimate the risks and benefits to health of travel by bicycle, using a bicycle sharing scheme, compared with travel by car in an urban environment.

Design

Health impact assessment study.

Setting

Public bicycle sharing initiative, Bicing, in Barcelona, Spain.

Participants

181 982 Bicing subscribers.

Main outcomes measures

The primary outcome measure was all cause mortality for the three domains of physical activity, air pollution (exposure to particulate matter <2.5 µm), and road traffic incidents. The secondary outcome was change in levels of carbon dioxide emissions.

Results

Compared with car users the estimated annual change in mortality of the Barcelona residents using Bicing (n=181 982) was 0.03 deaths from road traffic incidents and 0.13 deaths from air pollution. As a result of physical activity, 12.46 deaths were avoided (benefit:risk ratio 77). The annual number of deaths avoided was 12.28. As a result of journeys by Bicing, annual carbon dioxide emissions were reduced by an estimated 9 062 344 kg.

Conclusions

Public bicycle sharing initiatives such as Bicing in Barcelona have greater benefits than risks to health and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

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Sidewalk Bicycling Safety Issues

Publisher: 
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY
Publication date: 
December 1998
Document file: 

Bicycle route and safety data sets for 2,963 commuter cyclists in Ottawa and Toronto, Canada, containing cyclist characteristics, collision and fall history, and regular commute route, are used for this analysis. Previous analyses found sidewalk collisions and fall and injury rates significantly higher on sidewalks than on roads or paths. Of the 52 events reported on sidewalks, none were reported to police and would, therefore, not be found in a police accident database. These events did result in injuries, and in two cases major injuries.

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Road safety and percieved risk of cycle tracks and lanes in Copenhagen

Publisher: 
Trafitec / City of Copenhagen
Publication date: 
May 2007
Abstract: 

A study of accidents in Copenhagen before and after an extensive network of cycle lanes and tracks was installed.

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B01 Connections And Links

Publisher: 
Cycling England
Publication date: 
August 2008
Abstract: 

Additional off-carriageway links can offer enhanced permeability, potentially safer routes for cyclists and advantageous journey times compared to motor traffic. These need to be designed, built and maintained so that they achieve their intention of drawing cyclists away from less attractive routes on the carriageway.

The measures available to create cycle links can range from a cycle gap in a road closure to the construction of a new bridge. To be effective, cycle links should be clearly signed, direct and relevant to cyclists’ needs.

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A15 Audits And Risk Assessment

Publisher: 
Cycling England
Publication date: 
August 2008
Abstract: 

All changes to the highway network, including maintenance schemes, should be the subject of a cycle audit. Where safety audits identify that normally recognised design standards cannot be met, projects should be the subject of a risk assessment that involves user representatives.

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